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The movement to the opening of a Japanese -style IR (specified complex tourist facility), including casinos, is becoming active in each local government. Yokohama City announced on August 22, 2019 that mayor Hayashi will start an IR invitation for the first time in the Kanto region. Local ports have different from the opening of IR at Yamashita Wharf, and the opposition of citizens has increased intensely, and arguments over the casino are discussing. Can I really make a casino in Yokohama?
Yokohama City turns from a blank paper and raises his name
In casinos, roulette, card, slot machine, baccarat, backgamon, etc. are performed, but not only pachinko but also public gambling such as lottery, horse racing, and bicycle racing is also gambling. Until now, there was no casino in Japan, and it was done in illegal dark gambling. In other words, the purpose of Japanese IR is to make casinos, which were illegally illegal, to be legal gambling.
The IR was made by a so -called Abenomics’s third arrow for micro -like economic promotion measures, and was formulated after discussions in the Diet. In addition, there is a purpose of leveraging the IR to prevent economic stalls after Tokyo Olipara.
According to the IR -related law, in December 2016, the IR Promotion Act (the Act on Promotion of Development of Specified Composite Tourist Facility Area) was enacted in July 2018 (the Specified Composite Tourist Facility Area Development Law). In March 2019, a Cabinet Order related to IR maintenance (specified complex tourist facility area development law) was issued, the upper limit of three locations in Japan, and the casino (gaming area) is less than 3 % of the entire IR facility floor area. It was decided.
Until Yokohama City raised his name, the official decision of the IR invitation by the chief (in the prefecture) was announced in Osaka City (Osaka), Wakayama (Wakayama Prefecture), and Sasebo City (Nagasaki Prefecture). In addition, Tomakomai City (Hokkaido), Iwanuma City (Miyagi Prefecture), Chiba City, Tokyo, Tokoname City (Aichi Prefecture), Kitakyushu City, etc. are said to be positive.
In the case of Yokohama City, the mayor Hayashi in the previous mayoral election held in April 2017 showed a cautious attitude to attracting IR and made a candidate as a “white paper”, and his posture has been re -elected. 。 Since then, he has repeatedly repeatedly blank.
However, after a while, Yokohama City began to move to attract IR. The middle four -year plan of Yokohama City, which was launched in 2018, also mentioned the possibility of attracting IR.
There is distrust among citizens in the attitude of such a city. Approximately 20 % of public comments on the medium -term plan were related to IR, and 94 % of them were negative in promoting IR planning, ignoring the voices of IRs and citizens, including casinos.
Yokohama City will later start collecting information on IR invitation, selecting a trader and outsourcing. In May, we published an IR study survey report. Mayor Hayashi, in early July following the announcement of the government’s IR maintenance and the results of the city’s report, if the IR was invited to Yokohama, it would be natural to include a casino, and the residents related to attracting. He states that voting does not ask for pros and cons.
The city and the mayor, which have ignored the concerns of Yokohama citizens, have been exposed to strong criticisms, but can we make a casino in Yokohama? Of 텍사스포커 course, it can be expected to promote regional promotion and increase tax revenue (15 % of the country and local governments, 15 % of the coarse of casinos), and may have an economic ripple effect of 1 trillion yen a year.
Adverse effects that casinos are attracting to the local community
However, there are few materials from the negative aspects of the locals regarding the impact of the casino in Yokohama. The concerns are as follows.
・ Increased people with gambling addiction
・ Danger of money laundering
・ Involved in anti -social forces in Japan and overseas
・ The security of the region deteriorates
・ Adverse effects on youth
First, gambling addiction. This is also called a pathological gambling, and as shown in the US mental illness (DSM), the gambling addiction is not “address”, as shown in the US mental illness diagnostic standards. It is classified as a type of mental illness rather than dependence.
The diagnosis is when gambling behavior cannot be explained in manic episodes, and tools such as the DSM-5 DSM DSM and the Screening Test developed by the US South Oaks Foundation (The South Oaks Gambling Screen) are gambling. Used for diagnosis ( * 1).
Japan’s gambling -addicted patients have a wide range and percentage of the survey, and a survey published in 2013 said that there were 5.36 million Japanese gambling addicts, which became a big topic. 。 However, this number was asked if the pathological gambling was a lifetime memory, and was partially criticized by the fact that it was not a more realistic result of the past 12 months.
When Japanese -style IR began to become a problem, research research on gambling addiction began to be conducted in Japan, but as mentioned above, I did not take a unified questionnaire, I could not test the data, or pachinko. All dependence on dependence, all of them are long and lack of credibility. The use of Japanese IRs in political policy controversy may have influenced.
According to a survey conducted again in 2017, the percentage of those suspected of gambling addiction within the past 12 months in Japan is 0.8 % (0.5 to 1.1 %, 1.5 % for men, 0.1 % for women). In the case of a lifetime, it is 3.6 % (3.1 to 4.2 %, 6.7 % for men, 0.6 % for women) ( * 2). It was a face -to -face questionnaire survey using SOGS for 4685 people nationwide (valid answers) (with some additional examinations).
According to the survey, the gambling that spent most money was pachinko and pachislot, and the average amount of gambling addiction was about 58,000 yen per year. Compared to surveys around the world, the ratio of gambling addiction is 1.9 % in the United States, 0.8 % in the United Kingdom, 0.6 % Sweden, and 0.5 % in Switzerland within 12 months. In a lifetime, there are 2.4 % of Australian men, 1.7 % for women, 1.9 % of the Netherlands, 1.2 % France, 1.1 % Switzerland, and 0.9 % of Canada.
Japanese people have a higher percentage of people who are suspected of gambling addiction than in other countries, but not so high in the last 12 months. I have done a pathological gambling before 12 months, but many people may have washed their feet by losing or getting lost in their families.
Dealing gap is also a kind of addiction, so if there is a clause that can be considered once in the past, there is a danger that the brain reward system has been created ( * 3). Some beats may revive the previous memory, which may fall into a pathological gambling -gambling addiction.
According to some research, there is no special condition that tends to be gambling addiction ( * 4). Conversely, everyone falls into a pathological gap.
Yokohama City with a large number of gambling consultations
The government says that it will restrict Japanese entry as a measure against addiction, but it will be difficult to prevent it simply by collecting the number of times and admission. If Yokohama citizens go to a nearby casino, there is a high risk that the previous memory will recur and become gambling addiction.
By the way, the number of consultations on the welfare and health center in Yokohama was 251 in FY2014 and 246 in 2015 ( * 5). In the case of Chiba City, which is active in attracting the same IR, there are 60 ( * 6) in total for 29 call consultations on the gambling problem in FY2017 and 31 interviews.
Although it cannot be simply compared due to the number of facilities and the difference in support system, Yokohama City is overwhelmingly large. It is likely to be helpful in comparison of government -designated cities in the Tokyo metropolitan area.
Using a casino is a common way for anti -social organizations or people who want to evade taxes with some losses with some losses. If you think that it is better to be able to clean and use it freely even if you pay a wage to the casino side rather than a gold that is salted and cannot be used. Because it is a reality.
Since this method is rampant around the world, strong regulations are needed like the United States, Macau, and Singapore, which have a license system for junkets.
However, a junket that pulls good customers is also worthwhile for casinos. And some of the good customers include people and organizations who want to do money laundering, and the casino wants to attract such customers even if they are regulated.
There is a risk that money laundering will be unlimited in Japan until the problem becomes apparent while you are not used to casinos. In that case, the casino in Yokohama will be a hotbed of money laundering, and an unknown substitute will enter Yokohama to cause various problems.
What about security and adverse effects on youth? According to a recent survey on Japanese inmates, people who have been criminals are more likely to be gambling about four times more than ordinary people ( * 7). Gambling addiction was closely related to the crime of the reason for the economic and loss accounts such as shoplifting, theft, and robbery.
If an IR facility can be created in Yokohama, the Yamashita area in Naka Ward will be redeveloped. It is close to the Hikawa Maru in Yamashita Park, a large pier where Chinatown and the huge cruise passenger ship berth, the shopping district in Motomachi, the entertainment district around Kannai, and one of Japan’s three largest doyas.
Pachinko’s so -called “three -store method” was also a reluctant countermeasure to make the police administration can control, rather than becoming a source of anti -social forces. The relationship between gambling regulations and anti -social funding sources is also a problem similar to tobacco regulations. If the usage rate is highly regulated with a high usage rate, dark gambling and dark buckwheat can be rampant, which can be a source of anti -social forces.
The security deteriorates and the adverse effects on minors are great
About half of the patients transported by emergency in Nishi Ward and Naka Ward are residents outside the ward. Although the percentage of other wards is about 20 to 30 %, there are about twice the difference, and there are large entertainment streets, office streets, and terminal stations in Nishi -ku and Naka Ward, so there are many foreigners flowing inbound. 。 There is a risk that anti -social forces from Japan and abroad will come to Yokohama, a port city where people come and go, for casino interests.
According to the materials of the Yokohama City Fire Bureau, the percentage of emergency transportation in the perpetrator (an accident that intentionally added injuries by others) is high in the order of Naka -ku, which is planned to be IR, in the Minami Ward ( *. 8). These areas are close to the redevelopment site of IR.
A boy under the age of 18 goes in and out of snacks, pachinko parlors, late -night restaurants, late -night shows, and possessing an obscene book is called ninety entertainment. The ratio led by a bad boy has increased nationwide, but that is remarkable in Yokohama ( * 9). If a casino can be done, the adverse effects on young people will be immeasurable.
This is the reason why we should not make a casino in Yokohama.
Many people consult the government in Yokohama about gambling, and there is a risk that more people will be gambling. Since the danger of money laundering is high and the security is poor in the first place, anti -social forces will come from Japan and overseas. The adverse effects on minors who are guided by unhealthy entertainment cannot be ignored.
With the development of the Minato Mirai district, there are high -rise buildings called Landmarks in the area, and entertainment facilities such as hotels, conference halls, and amusement parks are in place. In addition, there are Chinatown, Motomachi and Yamate districts that are not found in other tourist spots.
There is a risk of crabs in such a district, and the economic ripple effect of IR is uncertain in the first place. Overseas capital, which is making money in casinos, cannot be a top priority on the region and residents. It’s better to pioneer your future with wisdom and ingenuity than to easily entrust the future of Yokohama City to the money you made with gambling. A risky casino is not needed in Yokohama.
* 1: In SOGS, there are no selection items such as “What kind of gambling have you been doing so far,” and “What is the maximum amount per day?” Have you gambling again to regain your minutes? “Have you ever heard that you’re losing in gambling but have won?” So that people who are important to the important people have hidden gambling tickets, lotteries, gambling funds, etc. “, and 17 items (or 12 items), including selection items and those that are scored in Jesus no (or 12 items). Judgment is made by questions and more than 5 is suspected of gambling addiction * 2: Susumu Higuchi, “Epidemiological Survey on Gambling and other dependence in Japan (Summary of National Survey results)”, Epidemiology Survey on gambling disorders. Research on biological evaluation, medical, welfare, and social support, comprehensive research and development projects for the disabled, 2017 * 3: 3: Iris M. Balodis, et al., “Diminjed Frontostriatal During Processing of Monetary Rewards and Losses in Pathological Gambling.” Biological Psychiatry, Vol.71, Issue8, 749-757, 2012 ※4：Agneta Johansson, et al., “Risk Factors for Problematic Gambling: A Critical Literature Review.” Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol .25, ISSUE1, 67-92, 2009 * 5: Yokohama City, 2016 Yokohama City Status Survey Report, 2016 * 6: Chiba Prefectural Mental Insurance Welfare Center, “Mental Health and Welfare Center Annual Report 2017 (achievements), 2017 * 7: 7: Kenji Yokotani, et al., “CRAVING FOR GAMBLING PREDICTS INCOME-GENERATING OFFENSES Of Gambling Studies, Doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09887-4, 2019 * 9: Yokohama City, “Yokohama City Statistical Books: Chapter 17 Judicial and Security: Incuses on Bad Working Boys”, 2017